China has become the world's largest consumer of aquatic products, with aquatic products accounting for more than 40% of global production. With the improvement of the living standards of our residents and the continuous optimization and improvement of the consumption structure, the proportion of aquatic products in the dietary structure is increasing, and the average annual consumption is growing at a rate of 3%. In 2019, high-quality, high value-added, high-branded aquatic products are an inevitable trend of development.
The overall growth of the aquatic industry
China is one of the countries with the longest history of aquaculture in the world. In the past decade, China has been occupying more than 60% of global aquaculture production, and it is also the only major fishery country in the world where the total amount of farmed aquatic products exceeds the total catch.
In 2017, the output of aquaculture products in China was 52.81 million tons, an increase of 2.7%; the output of harvested aquatic products was 16.56 million tons, down 5.8%. The industry is in a stage of overall steady growth and adjustment of category structure. China's aquaculture industry is still dominated by traditional retail farming, and the top five companies have a market concentration of less than 5%.
China is also the world's largest consumer of aquatic products. 35% of the world's seafood enters the Chinese consumer market through trade. Canadian King Crab, Ecuadorian White Shrimp, Arctic Sweet Shrimp, Argentine Red Shrimp... In the E-commerce platform such as Jingdong and Tmall, consumers can purchase seafood products from all over the world.
China is also the world's largest exporter of aquatic products. Japan, the United States, South Korea, and the European Union have always been the main export markets for Chinese aquatic products. The exports of aquatic products in these four countries (regions) accounted for about 80% of China's total exports of aquatic products.
China's aquatic products are mainly exported by fresh frozen and frozen fish and soft shell products. The former accounts for about 40% of the total annual exports, while the latter accounts for about 30%. It indicates that the export varieties of Chinese aquatic products have changed from relying entirely on primary products to processing products, and the added value of products has increased.
The development of the aquatic industry is extremely uneven
Aquaculture is a long-established industry with a large foundation, but its development is slow and the industry is not balanced. Due to the overall backwardness of the development of the aquaculture industry, the pace of advancement of the industry has been mixed, resulting in a very uneven development of the aquatic industry from various aspects such as industrial chain, category, region, product and brand.
There are speeds in the development of products, differences in product development, strengths in brand development, and gaps in regional development. Overall, the aquaculture industry shows stronger and weaker, and the weaker development is more serious. This constitutes a serious The overall status of the aquatic industry.
1 Industry chain integration is difficult
The upper, middle and lower reaches of the aquaculture industry chain have the longest history of upstream aquaculture. Large, medium and small aquaculture enterprises and individual farmers live together. The upstream industry is too scattered. With the multiple influences of technology and geography, the integration difficulty is relatively Larger; mid-stream suppliers, wholesalers, processors and monopoly channels, strong price control, regional monopoly awareness; downstream retailers control terminals, sales are restricted by the region.
2 categories have obvious strengths and weaknesses
Aquatic products are divided into freshwater products and marine aquatic products with a wide range of products. However, there are only a few hundred categories that are highly market-oriented and well-known. It is these market-oriented categories that are also unbalanced in development. Branding is high, such as sea cucumber, crayfish, hairy crabs, prawns, salmon, etc. Most of these products are led by leading enterprises, forming a large-scale production and brand marketing. Ordinary aquatic products represented by grass carp and squid have not yet formed a brand.
3 production areas have speed, strength and weakness
China's aquatic products have obvious characteristics of production areas, and the concentration of production areas of various aquatic products is relatively high. The production areas have also shown the characteristics of the strength of development. For example, sea cucumber, Liaoning, Shandong, and Fujian produce more than 95% of sea cucumber production, and sea cucumber production in other coastal provinces is almost negligible.
In the same area, the sea cucumber quality and brand in Liaoning and Shandong are much stronger than those in Fujian. For example, crayfish, the national crayfish are only produced in the areas of Qiang, Qianjiang, Wuhan, Hefei, etc., while the brand of the dragonfly is the highest, the production of Qianjiang is the largest, and the regionality is too obvious.
4 consumer cognitive imbalance
With the growth of disposable income of households, the optimization of consumption varieties and the transformation of consumption concepts, consumers' demand for aquatic products is becoming more diversified. Branding is the best way to enhance consumer perception.
However, the development of China's aquatic product branding is extremely unbalanced, and the brands recognized by consumers are few and far between. The brands such as Zizidao, Good Master, and Guolian Aquatic Products have penetrated the consumer's mind in terms of product quality and brand reputation. However, most of the aquatic products are still in the stage of no brand and no cognition.
Intensive processing is the only way for the aquaculture industry
At the beginning of the development of the aquatic industry, the product processing ratio is very low. As the market demand continues to escalate, aquatic product processing can develop rapidly. In order to meet the consumer demand that people's life rhythm is accelerating, various deep-processing products such as chilled products, conditioning products, pre-made foods, and convenience foods, which are mainly aquatic products, have been gradually developed.
From the perspective of the overall industry, the processing level of the aquaculture industry is still relatively low. Most of the aquatic product processing is only in the initial processing stage, which causes great waste of aquatic resources, and at the same time leads to low profit level and weak anti-risk ability.
In order to strengthen the full utilization of aquatic resources and increase the added value of aquatic products, the international aquatic products developed countries have gradually developed the deep processing industry of aquatic products, mainly including the comprehensive utilization of low-value products, the intensive processing of high-quality products, synthetic aquatic products, health care and beauty. The development of aquatic foods, etc.
Some leading enterprises have developed products such as antihypertensive peptides, fish skin collagen, protamine and other products by using waste products from aquatic products processing, and have gained a good return in the market.
At present, the overall strength of the aquaculture industry has been significantly improved, the industrial structure is gradually changing, the level of processing technology is rising, the awareness of quality and hygiene is greatly enhanced, and the growth of high value-added products is obvious. Improving the scientific and technological content of aquatic products processing, developing diversified aquatic products, and processing the products to deep processing and health care products is the only way for the development of China's aquatic industry.
Corporate brand awareness is gradually enhanced
The aquaculture industry has developed in the traditional mode and has not been able to adapt to the requirements of modern market competition. Consumers' awareness of health is awakened, brand awareness is strengthened, and food safety, quality, and health are becoming more and more demanding. Therefore, branded products with wide popularity and reputation are the first choice for consumers to purchase high-quality aquatic products.
The branding process of China's aquaculture industry is relatively late, but its development is very fast. With the upgrading of market demand and the intensification of industry competition, a group of powerful enterprises have gradually embarked on the track of brand strategy, and aquatic product processing enterprises have paid more and more attention to brand and market image.
In the past decade, a large number of consumer brands have been active in the market. The influence of listed companies such as Zhangzidao, Guolian Aquatic Products, Good Master, Anjing and Haixin has gradually expanded from dealers and distributors to end users, becoming a well-known brand that consumers are familiar with.
Some potential leading companies in the industry, such as Jinglu Ocean, Hengxing Aquatic Products, and Zhongshui Group, have also begun to shift their attention from foreign trade to domestic products, and continue to introduce brand products for domestic consumers.
The development of the aquatic industry will surely move toward the “branding” road. It has a strong brand and perfect channels. Enterprises that can compete in product quality and have smooth sales channels can win in the process of industry integration.